Occupancy patterns of ungulates and pig-tailed macaques across regenerating and anthropogenic forests on Borneo
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Department of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, OX3 0BP, Oxford, UK
Borneo Nature Foundation, Jalan Bukit Raya Induk No 17. Palangka Raya 73112, Indonesia
Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia
Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Tubney House, OX13 5QL, Tubney, UK
Publication date: 2019-11-26
Corresponding author
Susan M Cheyne   

Borneo Nature Foundation
Hystrix It. J. Mamm. 2019;30(2):126-133
Large seed dispersers play a key role in maintaining and restoring tree species diversity in tropical forests. These taxa may also represent important food sources for sympatric carnivores. Therefore, their occurrence and population status have implications for the health of the forest and conservation of predators. Here we examined patterns of occurrence of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), bearded pigs (Sus barbatus), muntjac deer (Muntiacus spp.), mouse deer (Tragulus spp.) and sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) across study areas on Indonesian Borneo characterised by different land use histories and forest changes. We expected that human activities, including logging and hunting, would have a negative effect on mean occupancy of these taxa. We also predicted that the relative abundance of Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) would affect prey activity patterns. We conducted systematic camera trap surveys across six study areas on Indonesian Borneo and analysed data using occupancy modelling. Overall, mean occupancy probabilities for the clouded leopard’s prey species within regenerating forests were comparable to those in pristine habitats, but severely decreased at a site with ongoing human disturbance (logging and hunting). Mouse deer and muntjac deer diurnal activity positively correlated with detection rates of clouded leopards across sites, whereas other prey taxa showed no significant relationship. Therefore, some taxa are able to recolonise regenerating forests relatively quickly, but their distribution is reduced when simultaneous logging and hunting occur. In addition, mouse deer and muntjac deer appear able to adjust their activity patterns in response to the risk of predation. Our results provide support for investing conservation efforts of regenerating forests on Indonesian Borneo, which benefits the conservation of important large seed dispersers including primates and ungulates. Maintaining populations of large prey taxa will be crucial for the long-term persistence of clouded leopards.
We thank: Balai Lingkungan Hidup (Purak Cahu), BRINCC 2011 Expedition team, International Animal Rescue Indonesia, Bapak Herry Mulyadi Tuwan, Bapak Purwanto, Bapak Agusdin, Dr. Stan Lhota, Dr. Gabriella Fredriksson, The Nature Conservancy, Yayorin, Bapak Bupati of Lamandau Regency, University Mulawarman Samarinda, the Centre for the International Cooperation in Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP), University of Palangka Raya, Indonesian Ministry of Science and Technology (RISTEK) and Director General of Nature Conservation (PHKA). Final thanks to the anonymous reviewers of this paper.
Funding was provided by the Robertson Foundation, the Recanati-Kaplan Foundation, Panthera, International Animal Rescue Indonesia, The Clouded Leopard Project/Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium, Fresno Chafee Zoo and the Orangutan Foundation UK.
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