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Author Guidelines

New Editorial System

New editorial system: to submit a manuscript, please use the new editorial system. Any manuscript erroneously submitted using this site will be moved to the new system.
Our apologies for the inconvenience.

A copy of the Author Guidelines can be downloaded from the Italian Theriological Association website. The following instructions are an excerpt from the full document.


Instruction for Authors

Authors must submit a single manuscript file; tables and figures must be included in the manuscript file, and other supplementary material, if any, must be uploaded separately. When submitting, authors should be working at a computer where all of the relevant files for their paper are available. Submission of a typical manuscript requires about 10 minutes, but upload time depends on the speed of the Internet connection.

Peer review

Authors are invited to suggest the names of one to three potential referees, using the "Comments for the Editor" box at the bottom of the submission form (Step 1). Authors will be notified at every significant step in the peer-reviewing process. The manuscript will be reviewed by at least two anonymous reviewers. The review process will not last longer than four weeks (1 month).


In case of necessity, Hystrix - Italian Journal of Mammalogy postal address is
Hystrix the Italian Journal of Mammalogy
c/o Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "Charles Darwin"
Università di Roma "La Sapienza"
Viale dell'Università, 32
I-00185 Roma (RM)

For any kind of information (except technical information) on manuscript submission contact the Editor in chief: For technical informations (manuscript format questions, typesetting advice, on-line submission system help etc.) please contact:

Manuscript preparation

The whole manuscript must be prepared as a single Portable document Format (PDF) file. Other format as Rich Text Format (RTF), OASIS OpenDocument Text, Microsoft© Word (DOC) file are also accepted. Due to cross-platform inconsistency of many common file formats, we do not welcome formats other than those listed above, but to have a correct layout file reference, PDF format will be preferred. To facilitate authors, a manuscript template(in MS Word format) is available for downloaded. We strongly recommend to use the template in order to speed up both the reviewing and the typesetting processes. Before starting the electronic submission procedure, the Author should have ready the manuscript file.


The text should be written in (British) English.

Manuscript style

Units of measurement
Standard international units (SI) should be used. For practical reasons, some exceptions to SI units are allowed, such in the case of hectares as surface measurement unit.
For words that are to be set in emphasis such as species names in Latin, use an italic font; do not underline. Use capital letters only when the letters or words should appear in capitals.
Abbreviations and acronyms
Abbreviations and acronyms that are standard in the discipline need not be defined. All others must be defined when they are first mentioned in the text and those with more than one meaning should be avoided.
Statistical analyses
The assumptions and/or the model underlying any statistical analysis should be clearly stated. Symbols such as * and **, denoting levels of significance, should not be used except in conjunction with the actual values of the associated test statistic; actual p values are preferred. When expressing probability levels always use lowercase p, for example p < 0.01.
Writing numbers
In writing long numbers do not use any digit grouping, except for the decimal separator, which should always be a point: for example, 25562987 and not 25,562,987 or 25 562 987. The decimal marker should always be a point and not a comma: for example, 0.1 ml and not 0,1 ml. The decimal point in all numbers between 1 and -1, except 0, must be preceded by a 0, that is 0.3 and not .3 or ,3.
Equations and list of symbols
Equations should be clearly typed; triple-spacing should be used if superscripts and (or) subscripts are involved. Superscripts and subscripts should be legible and carefully placed. We strongly advise using a specialized mathematical typesetting software such as Math, MathType, Microsoft Office Equation Editor or TEX/LATEX. Distinguish between lowercase l and the numeral one, and between capital O and the numeral zero. Avoid using the asterisk * and the slash / to indicate multiplication and division. The sign × should be used to indicate multiplication, e.g., 3 × 106 and not 3 x 106 neither 3 · 106. A letter or symbol should represent only one entity and should be used consistently throughout the paper. Each variable must be defined in the text or in a List of symbols, to appear after the reference list. Variables representing vectors, matrices, vector matrices, and tensors must be clearly identified. Numbers identifying equations must be in square brackets and placed flush with the right margin. In numbering, no distinction is made between mathematical and chemical equations.
Footnotes to material in the main text should not be used unless they are unavoidable, but their use is encouraged in tables.
Citing References
Each reference must be cited in the text using the surnames of the authors and the year of publication. References cited together should be arranged chronologically, oldest first, for example (Palomares and Delibes, 1993; Mitchell-Jones, 1996). Depending on the sentence construction, the names may or may not be in parentheses, but the year always is, for example Palomares and Delibes (1993) and Mitchell-Jones (1996). If there are three or more authors, the citation should give the name of the first author followed by et al., not italicised (e.g., Marcus et al. 2000). If references occur that are not uniquely identified by the authors' names and year, use a, b, c, etc., after the year, for example, Palomares and Delibes, (1993a, 1993b), (Marcus et al., 2000a, 2000b), for the text citation and in the reference list.
Citing URIs
Uniform reference indicators and locators (URIs and URLs), or digital object identifiers (DOIs) are useful in locating references on the World Wide Web, and authors are encouraged to include these; they should be added to the reference in the reference list (see example below). Cite URIs in the main text using the relevant URI title (i.e. the title in the upper left corner of the Web browser window) when citing an URI in the text.
Citing personal communications and works in preparation
Citations such as "submitted for publication", "in preparation", and "personal communication" should be emphasized and included parenthetically in the text and must not appear in the References section. For a private communication, year of communication should also be given, e.g., (J.S. Jones, personal communication, 1999). If an unpublished book or article has been accepted for publication, or has been already published online, before publication on paper, include it in the reference list followed respectively by the notation (In press) or (Online first).
Deposition of representative specimens
Authors submitting manuscripts of a survey or taxonomic nature are urged to consider depositing representative specimens in a recognised depository. Prior to commencing a study, authors should make arrangements with a depository in a national or local museum. The catalogue or accession numbers should be included in the manuscript or, if necessary, added at the proof stage.

Manuscript layout

All pages must be numbered consecutively in the lower-right corner starting from 1 (Title page). Manuscript will contain a title page, a main text body (from Introduction to References included), tables (each on a separate sheet), figure captions (all together on a separate sheet) and figures (each on a separate sheet). In the main text and also in the title page, lines must be numbered on the left of the sheet. Line numbers will continue across pages. Manuscripts must be written in Times Roman (or equivalent serif font, such as Times New Roman or FreeSerif), 10 points size, with double space and wide margins (almost 2 or 3 cm on both sides). Authors can indicate in the text the approximate location of figures and tables, placing the name ot the table or figure between square brackets on a separate centered line, like this:
[Figure 1] If necessary and useful to improve manuscript readability, single sections could be divided into paragraphs.

Title page

The title page should contain the manuscript title, author's name(s), complete affiliation address(es), address of corresponding author with fax number and e-mail. A running title not longer than 6-8 words should also be suggested. All correspondence about manuscripts submitted through on-line system will be sent to the person listed on the title page as the corresponding author during submission. Correspondence will only be by e-mail. For revisions, the corresponding author will be contacted by e-mail and asked to submit a revision; the process is very similar to initial submission. The title page must contain the following informations: (i) the full title of the paper. (ii) Authors' names (complete) listed in the order in which they are to appear at the head of the printed article. (iii) Affiliation and address (including e-mail address) for each author. This should reflect the affiliation and address at the time of the study. (iv) Name, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author. The same information will be asked as the first step of the online submission process.

Manuscript main text

Short notes
Short notes are reserved for brief papers containing critical discussion, short reports and comments and viewpoints on previously published papers, or on arguments of interest in theriological field. Note that Short notes do not necessarily have Introductions, Material and methods, Results and Discussions, and sections could be freely organised. Authors are advised to structure Short communications/Short notes without subdivision of the text, with only an Abstract in English and in Italian (Riassunto).
Full papers
Manuscript must be divided into sections in the following sequence: title page (page 1), abstract and keywords, riassunto e parole chiave (in Italian) (page 2), introduction (from page 3), materials and methods, results and discussion, conclusion, acknowledgements, list of symbols (if any), references (see descriptions of each part of the manuscript, below). Tables, legends of figures and figures should be on separate pages. If necessary and useful to improve manuscript readability, a single section could be divided into subsections or paragraphs. Abstract and keywords An abstract in English and Italian not exceeding 300 words is required. The abstract should indicate the main results and conclusions and should be submitted in English. It will be translated into Italian by the journal staff. However, authors able to submit abstracts in both fluent English and Italian are encouraged to do so to speed up the editorial process. References should not be cited in the abstract. Introduction Limit the Introduction largely to the scope and rationale of the study. Restrict the literature review and other background information to that needed in defining the problem or setting the work in perspective. The Introduction should finish with a clear statement of purpose for the work. Materials and Methods Methods should be explained in sufficient detail to permit replication. Always cite make and model of any instrumentation used. For computer software cite program name and version number. Should any used software package be freely available on the Internet, cite the relevant World Wide Web page in the References. The experimental or computational material must be sufficiently detailed to permit reproduction of the work, but must be concise and avoid lengthy descriptions of known procedures; the latter should be specified by appropriate references. A reader's attention should be drawn to any new or unusual hazards encountered in the experimental work. Sources of biological materials, experimental methods, geographical locations,and statistical methods should be described. Precise locations of rare and endangered organisms should not be divulged. Express geographical coordinates always in Geographical coordinate system (Latitude/Longitude in degrees) or in the UTM/UPS (Universal Transverse Mercator/Universal Polar Stereographic) Results and discussion This section should contain enough explanation, interpretation and comparation to allow the reader to understand why experiments or observations were carried out and what they mean. State noteworthy findings to be noted in each table and figure, and avoid restating in the text what is clear from the captions. Authors should ensure that the number of significant digits used to describe their data does not exceed the accuracy with which the measurement can be made. Material supplementary to the text can be archived in the report literature, in a recognised data depository or as supplemental material on It. J. Mammal.web site, and referenced in the text (see Supplementary material section). Conclusions Conclusions should be brief and exhaustive. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements should be written in the third person. List of symbols If heavy use of symbols and mathematical notation is made in the manuscript, a List of symbols can be added, and placed after Acknowledgements and before the References section. the List of symbols should enumerate all the relevant variabiles used in the text, along with a short but informative description and (if any) the units of measurement. References The reference list must be double-spaced and placed at the end of the text, arranged in alphabetical order according to the name of the first author. Each reference should be on a separate paragraph, hanging-indented, that is, the second and the following lines should be indented to facilitate reading. Author names always have to be written as Last name followed by the initials of first and (if any) second name, followed (if any) by name suffixes (Jr., III, etc.). References with the same first author are listed in the following order. (i) Papers with one author only are listed first, in chronological order among them, beginning with the earliest paper. (ii) Papers with dual authorship follow, and are listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the second author. (iii) Papers with three or more authors appear after the dual-authored papers and are arranged in alphabetical order. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the ISO 4 list of serial title word abbreviations (ISO 3297:1988) published by the ISSN International Centre and used on the ISI Journal of Citation Report. The journal encourages the inclusion of issue numbers which should be placed in parentheses after the volume number. Citation of material in electronic format such as World Wide Web pages is encouraged. Always indicate a recently visited URI, specifying last visit date. The following examples for the reference list cover most situations. The punctuation must be followed exactly. Journal article: Webb R.A., Davey K.G. 1976. The fine structure of the nervous tissue of the metacestode of Hymenolepis microstoma. Can. J. Zool. 54(7): 1206-1222. Entire issue of journal: Gordon D.C. Jr., Hourston A.S. (Eds.) 1983. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Dynamics of Turbid Coastal Environments. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40(Suppl. 1). Report: Sanders W.W. Jr., Elleby H.A. 1970. Distribution of wheel loads in highway bridges. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 83, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Book: Begon M., Harper J., Towsend C. 1990. Ecology. Individuals, Populations and Communities, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. Book in a series: Scott W.B., Crossman E.J. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. No. 184. Part of book (book chapter): Healey M.C. 1980. The ecology of juvenile salmon in Georgia Strait, Britsh Columbia. In: McNeil W.J., Himsworth D.C (Eds.). Salmonid ecosystems of the North Pacific. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR pp. 203-229. Paper in conference proceedings: Whittaker A.A., Uang C.M., Bertero V.F. 1990. Experimental seismic response of steel dual systems. Proceedings of the 4th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Palm Springs, Calif., Vol. 2. pp. 655-664. Institutional publications and pamphlets: Dzikowski P.A., Kirby G., Read G., Richards W.G. 1984. The climate for agriculture in Atlantic Canada. Available from the Atlantic Advisory Committee on Agrometeorology, Halifax, N.S. Publ. ACA 84-2-500. Agdex No. 070. Corporate author: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. 1975. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th ed. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C. Thesis: Keller C.P. 1987. The role of polysaccharidases in acid wall loosening of epidermal tissue from young Phaseolus vulgaris L. hypocotyls. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Botany, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Electronic citation (World Wide Web page): Quinion M.B. 1998. Citing online sources: advice on online citation formats. Available from [20 August 2007]. Citation including URL or DOI: Sterling J.T., Ream R.R. 2004. At-sea behavior of juvenile male norther fur seals. Can. J. Zool. 82(10): 1621-1637. doi: 10.1139/Z04-136 Translation:Koike A., Ogura B. 1977. Selectivity of meshes and entrances of shrimp traps and crab traps. J. Tokyo Univ. Fish. 64: 1-11. [Translated from Japanese by Can. Transl. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 4950, 1983.]


Tables must be typed each on a on separate sheet, numbered with Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text and placed after the list of references. The word "Table" should be always written capitalized: example Table 1. Tables should contain only horizontal rules. All tables should have complete but brief headings, to be placed before the table itself. Column headings should be brief, but may be amplified by footnotes. Vertical rules should not be used. Footnotes in tables should be designated by superscript numbers. Numerous small tables should be avoided, and the number of tables should be kept to a minimum. Any supplemental information can be formatted as table or data file and added as supplemental material.

Figures caption sheet

Figure captions should be listed on a separate page and placed after the tables and before Figure 1. The caption should informatively describe the content of the figure, without need for detailed reference to the text.


Each figure or group of figures (plate) should be planned to fit, after appropriate reduction, into the area of either one or two columns of text. The maximum finished size of a one-column illustration is 8.6 × 23.7 cm and that of a two-column illustration is 18.2 × 23.7 cm. Illustrations that exceed the maximum two-column size will be reduced. Figures must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, and each one must be referred to in the text and must be self-explanatory. All terms, abbreviations, and symbols must correspond with those in the text. Photographs should be continuous tone, of high quality, and with strong contrast. Only essential features should be shown. A photograph, or group of them, should be planned to fit into the area of either one or two columns of text with no further reduction. Electron micrographs or photomicrographs should include a scale bar directly on the print. The best results will be obtained if the authors match the contrast and density of all figures arranged as a single plate. Maps must have very clear, bold patterns and should show UTM coordinates (or longitudes and latitudes) and a scale, to ensure proper identification of study locations. Any figure can be submitted in a higher-resolution or more detailed version, to be included as supplemental material in the electronic version of the paper. If color figures are preferred, be warned that they will be converted into greyscale for the paper (printed) version of the Journal.
Preparation of electronic graphic files
Figures in final high-quality format can be added subsequently in the editorial process. Anyway, the manuscript should always include at the and a copy of each figure. For final high-quality figures, the preferred graphic format is Encapsulated PostScript (eps), Tagged Image File Format (tiff) or Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpeg/jpg). All figures should be submitted at the desired published size. For figures(plates) with several parts (e.g., a, b, c, d, etc.) created using the same software application, assemble them into one file rather than sending several files. Remember that the more complex your artwork becomes, the greater could be the possibility for problems at output time. Avoid complicated textures and shadings, especially in vector illustration programs; this increases the chance for a poor-quality final product. All colour files submitted must be in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) color space. These colours are used in full-colour commercial printing. RGB graphics (red, green, and blue; colours specifically used to produce an image on a monitor) will not print correctly. Vector files are image files produced using elements such as lines and shapes. Typically these files are used for line drawings.

Supplemental material and appendixes

An appendix should be able to stand alone, as a separate, self-contained document. Figures and tables used in an appendix should be numbered sequentially but separately from those used in the main body of the paper, for example, Figure A1, Table A1, etc. If references are cited in an appendix, they must be listed in an appendix reference list, separated from the reference list for the article. If there is more than one appendix, label as follows: Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.
Supplemental material
Supplemental material can be made available in its native file format, either at the request of the author or at the suggestion of the Editors. It will be linked from the Web page of the associated article. Such material may include extensive tables of data, detailed calculations, and illustrations or maps not essential for understanding and evaluating the paper. Such material must be clearly marked when the manuscript is submitted. Tables and figures should be numbered in sequence separate from those published with the paper (e.g., Fig. S1, Table S1). The supplementary material should be referred to in the main text. Always prefer "neutral" file formats for supplemental materials, such as Comma-Separated-Values (CSV) for tables or JPEG or MPEG4 for figures and videos.
Cover letter
The corresponding author should send a cover letter along with the submission, signed by himself, that:
  • states the type of paper being submitted (e.g., full paper, short note, review, etc.);
  • includes the full name and complete contact information (including e-mail address) for each co-author;
  • warrants that the manuscript represents original work that is not being considered for publication, in whole and same form, in another journal, book, conference proceedings, or government publication;
  • warrants that all of the authors approved the final submission;
  • lists the names, addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of one to three persons who are qualified to act as referees.
The cover letter must be a on a file separated from the manuscript file.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published nor is it before another journal for consideration, or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor.
  2. The text meets this journal's formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Copyright Notice

Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.




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